2.1 behaviour (the individual has problems with relationships,

2.1 Internet Gaming Addiction

In 2017, more than 1
billion people play computer games. Most of them enjoy and play game as a form
of entertainment and to release stress. Nevertheless, according to Subramaniam,
Chua, Abdin, Pang, Satghare, Vaingankar and Chong (2016) they stated that it
leads to problematic use and research has proven gaming may become
psychologically, socially and physically harmful to the user under certain
conditions.

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Playing games too much
leads to addiction. Addiction is a serious problem and significant enough to
make people to undergo dramatic changes in their physical and mental health. So
does to internet gaming addiction.

One of the cases of
internet addiction was reported last year in Cyberjaya when a 14-year-old boy
loved and addicted to game so much and because of that he did not leave his
home for half a year until his
parents hauled him to therapy for Internet addiction (The Star, 2016).

According to Griffiths (2002)
biopsychosocial processes lead to the development of addictions, for instance internet
gaming addiction, which include the following components he salience of the
behaviour (preoccupation with gaming); use of the behaviour in order to modify
mood (gaming is used to escape reality or create the feeling of euphoria);
development of tolerance (the individual needs increasingly more time to feel
the same effect); withdrawal symptoms subsequent to the discontinuation of the
behaviour (the individual feels anxious, depressed, and irritable if they are
prevented from playing) as well as interpersonal and intrapersonal conflict
develops as a consequence of the behaviour (the individual has problems with
relationships, studies, job, and hobbies).

 

2.2 Playing Video Games Creates
Teamwork among The Players

A great teamwork is
really important in the game. According to Reuter, Wendel, Göbel &
Steinmetz (2014) all players actively take part in the interaction during their
play time. A collaborative games offers the potential to train their players’
ability to work in teams. The players can have fun of being together with their
friends and help each other to overcome the obstacles during the game. Thus, it
develops their social skills. 

Pobiedina, Neidhardt,
Moreno & Werthner (2013) also agreed that the most important indicator for
the success of the team is the number of friends playing together in the team.
So, teamwork plays a role in playing video game. The existence of cooperation
in the team, really contribute and influence the performance of the team in a
positive way.

 

2.3 Playing Video Games Increases
Motivation and Learning Process

In terms of motivation,
competitive elements can be incorporated by playing video games because of the interactivity,
which allows for active engagement of the players in the playing process and
for immediate feedback on user’s actions (Vorderer, Hartmann & Klimmt,
2003).  The competitiveness develops
among the players to actively engage in the game. Therefore, it appears
sensible to regard enjoyment as one of the factors to motivate the players to
learn the game.  

            Videogames
has led to the rise of “edu-tainment” media. It helps the users for the learning
purpose. Griffiths (2002) said that some evidence suggests that important
skills may be built or reinforced by videogames for instance spatial
visualization ability including mentally, rotating and manipulating two- and
three-dimensional objects can be improved with video game playing. He added videogames
can be used as a research or measurement tools, it is useful because they allow
the researcher to measure performance on a very wide variety of tasks, and can
be easily changed and standardized, helps to increase IT skills as well as
enhance the language skills since most of the video games use English as the
main language, for instance increase grammar and vocabulary.

  
 

2.4 Playing
Video Games Develops Critical Thinking Skill

As indicated by Mohammad
Seifi, Derikvandi, Moosavipour and Khodabandelou (2015) some of the games have
been effective in increasing the level of the players’ critical thinking skill.
This is due to that when the players are facing difficulties or in ambiguous
situation, they need to improve their cognitive skills and it will make them to
think and be creative. So, the solution can be found. Thus, it can improve the
educational achievement. The critical thinking is defined as one of
intellectual and reflective thinking that is focusing on doing something or
believe ((Ennis, 1985; cited from Mohammad Seifi, Derikvandi, Moosavipour &
Khodabandelou, 2015).

However, in their study
there was a lack of influence of the games on the players’ critical thinking
skill where they came from different cultures and different training factors also
affected them. In addition, effective factors such as cultural factors,
economic and social institution towards the critical thinking are not similar
in the different societies had been confirmed. 

 

2.5
Playing Video Games Builds Competitiveness

One of the factors
leads the players to play online video game excessively is the strong
motivation to compete and win for video game play among the players. In Olson’s
study (2010), more than four of five boys surveyed indicated that they were
motivated by competition which represented 57% strongly agreed. Competition and
pride as well as the sense of accomplishment by winning the game were key
motivators to play, so, it could increase the self-esteem especially when they
did not perform well in academics or sports (Funk, Chan, Brouwer, &
Curtiss, 2006).

In the study of Board
of Film Classification (BBFC; Cragg, Taylor, & Toombs, 2007, cited from
Olson, 2010) the boys talked about competing and bragging the rights of winning
when they played the video games. It has proven that males were very
competitive rather than females to play video games in teams. For them, they
will get the social rewards because of gaming, such as talking about how you
are doing, playing together, helping and beating each other. It attracted the
males more compared to the females. Nevertheless, females also enjoyed
competition but the percentage was less.       

In addition, for the
boys, video games can be a jockey for social status like the healthy
developmental role of “rough and tumble” play (Pellegrini, 2003;
cited from Olson, 2010). It means that the boys can gain the rank or status if
they are pro or master the famous video game such as Dota 2 game. So, the
feeling of motivation to compete and win in every battle is needed.

2.6 Playing Video Games Increases
English Skills

Other than that, the
players can improve and master their English skills by playing the game. The language
that is used in Dota 2 is English, in order to make it easier to communicate in
a team just in case the players are from different countries and speak
different languages. This helps many players to get used to the game faster and
more comfortably (An, 2017). In the study of 3D Role-Playing Games as Language
Learning Tools, Rankin, Gold, & Gooch (2006) found that results demonstrate
that Ever Quest 2 intermediate and advanced ESL students had increased their
English vocabulary by 40% as the result of game play interactions.

The gamers are able to increase
their vocabulary and grammar, reading as well as their speaking skills. Ashraf
Hamid, Motlagh and Salami (2014) in their study revealed that online games can
be effective in vocabulary acquisition. This is due to an interactive and
motivating context is created, so the players can easily and subconsciously share
their information. It helps the players to increase English skills since they
indirectly undergo the process of vocabulary learning.

 

2.7
Video Games As A Stress Reliever

Stress is a part of
people’s lives, finding a way to relieve stress would be helpful to the people.
According to Mercer (2015) by finding a simple way to remove that ailment which
is stress would be beneficial to a great number of people. This is because when
stress goes on for too long, it can damage the mind and body. National Institute
of Mental Health indicated that stress can bring negative effect to a person’s
immune, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems. Meanwhile for the
prolonged stress, it may lead to serious health problems such as heart disease,
high blood pressure, diabetes, depression, anxiety disorder, and other
illnesses.

Online gaming acts as the
alleviation of negative feelings and mood states. The gamers used online gaming
to relieve their boredom and loneliness as well to reduce frustration. Online
gaming had the capability as a therapy to play games to relieve the negative
feelings (Hussain & Griffiths, 2009). Thus, it will bring the positive
vibes to the gamers.  

2.8
Excessive Playing Video Games and Problems

Excessive game playing
can cause negative impact towards the players. The virtual world was perceived
as a place to waste time and the online community also facilitated excessive
play (Hussain & Griffiths, 2009). The gamers claimed about the factors of
excessive playing play such as raiding, leveling up and belonging to a guild.
They also viewed playing video games as their hobby.

Excessive playing video
games can cause conflict. They already practice in the game but when they apply
to the daily life, it goes wrong. Hedin (2008) gave an example when a man knows
that he is not supposed to hurt a girl but in the gaming world he cannot abide
to such an ideal because the violence of the game is a necessary part to
achieve the goal. 

   

2.9 Effect Of Playing Video Games
on Career and Academics

As stated by Daues
(2017) bad grades and poor job performance are the result of video gaming. The
players lack of focus and just doing the minimal amount of effort in doing
works in the class or to keep their jobs. The players chose gaming over other
parts of their life. They also mentioned their motivation reduced to improve
their situation in their careers or academics.

In this study, the researcher also mentioned another
consequence which is the blatant time that the players felt was wasted. The
amount of time they had spent on playing video game was supposedly the time for
them to study and concentrate in completing their works. The amount of time in time spent playing video games
often added up to to days, weeks, months, or years.

Prot, McDonald, Anderson
& Gentile (2012) agreed that high amount of time on screen media which is
referring to video game play is associated with poorer school performance. The
amount of time that should be spent on activities such as reading, doing
homework or other activites may be displaced with the time of playing video
games (Gentile, Lynch & Linder, 2004; cited from Prot, McDonald, Anderson
& Gentile, 2012).      

 

2.10 Video Games Increase Violence and
Aggression

Computer games play a
big role in this culture today and the consequences of playing them have been a
topic of debates. One of the consequences is increasing aggressiveness
(Anderson & Bushman, 2001; cited from Campit, 2015). Aggression can be
defined as a barrier in the development of good social skills since it is linked
with violent computer games.

When engaging with aggression
it may lead to arguments and name calling with others. Apart from that, arguing
and spreading rumors also contribute to aggression (Williams & Skoric 2005;
cited from Ferguson, 2011). All of that these are the examples of aggression. 

Two models have been
introduced related to the video game violence. The first one is a catalyst
model about the serious aggression and violence results from a combination of
genetic and proximal environmental influences (such as family and peers) but
that distal environmental factors such as media have little influence on
behavior (Ferguson, 2011).  He has
developed the difference view in which personality traits such as psychoticism
interact with violent video game exposure to produce serious aggression as the
second model.

 

2.11 Effect of Video Games on Management of Time

Students tend to use
the Internet not for beneficial purpose and they only waste a lot of time. The
online usage is usually could last up to 20 hours and they tend to spend their
time of playing video games from 40 to 80 hours per week. The sleep patterns are
disrupted because of late night online (Ozcan & Buzlu, 2007).

Hussain and Griffiths
(2009) agreed that the gamers experienced time loss to such an extent that some
gamers set an alarm to alert them of the time. It was also a reason for the
level of involvement that is required when playing the video games. The effects
of time loss and spending too much time on video games can create problems.

The gamers are willing
to sacrifice their sleep time and other necessities in real life just to stay
longer in virtual world. Factor that drives players to spend a lot of time on
playing the video game is the feeling of guilt. They do not want to disappoint
their teammates, they believe if they leave the game, their teammates might not
win the game (Duchneaut, Yee, Nickell & Moore, 2006; cited from Rubijesmin
Abdul Latif, Norshakirah Abdul Aziz & Mohd Taufik Abdul Jalil, 2017).

 

2.12 Playing
Video Games Leads to Problem in a Relationship 

Playing video games
also bring negative consequence to the relationship. According to Young (1999;
cited from Rubijesmin Abdul Latif, Norshakirah Abdul Aziz & Mohd Taufik
Abdul Jalil, 2017) 53% of those people who are addicted to the Internet were
reported to have some serious relationship problems. They spend less time with
the people in their life because they fill most of their time on the Internet.
Apart from that, marriages have been discovered as the most affected since it
involves responsibilities and duties at home.

Hussain & Griffiths
(2009) also agreed that the relationship with the loved ones will be affected
as they prefer to stay at home rather than going out with their family during
their leisure time. This consequence may breakdown the relationships and
friendships.

There was a case at
Nevada, a couple has been sentenced to be guilty because they neglected their
children. They have left their babies starving and suffering to death. All of
this happened because of addiction to the Internet and video games (Jones,
2007; cited from Rubijesmin et al., 2017). This should be taken as a lesson
because addiction brings negativity towards people in the social life.

 

2.13 Consequences of Playing Video
Games on Health

Playing video game too
much can lead to unhealthy lifestyle. Playing more computer games cause people
become lazy and stay at home only, which they lack of doing activity and
getting fat easily. Zamani, Chashmi & Hedayati (2009) considered this
problem as a biological problem. In psychological dimension, computer games
have a negative relationship with mental health and have a direct implication
on their violent behavior, anxiety, depression and isolation of those
adolescents who play these games. Level and intensity of violence in the game,
the ability of player in differentiating virtual world and real world, player’s
ability to inhibit their desires and motivation, the values they are brought up
with or living with as well as the values that are in the context and content
of the games are the factors of psychological health from the impact of playing
computer games.

Other than that, they
also stated that many studies show that those people who are addicted to
computer games have high heart beat and blood pressure because of too much
excitement and stress. Most of the players neglect their meals time and do not
notice the time passing. It creates a cause and effect relationship between addiction
of playing computer games and physical as well as mental health.

According to Griffiths
(2005) in his study of “video games and health” other cases have been reported
such as the risk of epileptic seizures while playing video games in photo-sensitive
individuals with epilepsy is well established. The seizures are most likely to
occur during rapid scene changes and when games include patterns of highly
intense repetition and flickering. Occasional players seem to be just as
susceptible because seizures and excessive play do not seem to be linked
directly. Playing video games may also cause to auditory hallucinations,
enuresis, encopresis, wrist pain, neck pain, elbow pain, tenosynovitis,
hand-arm vibration syndrome, repetitive strain injuries, peripheral neuropathy
and obesity.

 

2.14 Parents’
Role to Control Their Children from Playing Video Games Too Much

One of the ways to
control excessive playing of video games is the parents’ role. Blaszczynski
(2008) focused on parents where it is arguably their responsibility to ensure
that their children do not play video games excessively, in the same way like
they should ensure that their children do not watch television excessively, or
that they do not play football excessively etc. This is the parents’ duty to
teach their child how to manage their time effectively. This is not an easy
task and some parents may find it easier to sometimes let their children carry
on playing games longer than they should, or may not to even attempt to limit
their play at all. Thus, parents should aware and limit their children from
playing video games too much.

    Zamani, Chashmi & Hedayati (2009) also
agreed with the involvement of parents in order to control the excessive paying
of video games. Parents should teach their children the proper culture of
playing games. The wide usage of computer games among the adolescents as one of
the main worries. All of these are because games may create a more attractive
environment compared to school works and distract with school and academic performance
of children. They need to make sure
to spend time with their children more instead of focusing in their work only.   

 

2.15 Professional Help as a
Treatment of Internet Gaming Addiction

Internet addiction has
become a phenomenon, so the professional helps in some countries like United
States, Canada, China, Korea and Netherlands have opened treatment centers for
video game addiction (Kalke & Raschke, 2004). A study using methylphenidate
in 62 Korean children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
or known as ADHD and internet video game addiction was reported (Griffith,
2008). After 8 weeks of treatment, there was a reduction in measures of
internet use scores and internet usage times. These measures were positively
correlated with measures of attention. Thus, Methylphenidate (MPH) is suggested
as a potential treatment of Internet addiction including excessive computer
game addiction.

Apart from that, the
gamers also can practice another therapy at home which is to relieve eyes and
muscle tension. According to Young (2009) eyes and muscles need to rest, so it is
wise to take a brief eye-focusing break every 20 minutes to prevent eyestrain.
The gamers can look up from the game and focus on something in the distance for
several seconds, while doing it, they need to get up and move around for a
minute or two to relieve muscle tension.