Discuss the hierarchy is of the physiological needs.

Discuss the need for Islamic (Gagnon)counseling in meeting
the psychological needs of the Muslim clients

Definition of psychology from the Islamic perspective:

An alternative definition of psychology from the Islamic
perspective would include: the study of the soul; the ensuing behavioral,
emotional, and mental processes; and both the seen and unseen aspects that
influence these elements.

General definition of psychology:

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Behavior is considered to be anything that an individual does, or any action
that can be observed by others.

 

However the three psychological needs according
to Self-determination theory, human
beings should have: a need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.

In a cross-cultural research they showed that for all
people’s healthy development, engagement, motivation, and well-being need
satisfaction is very necessary (Gagné et al., 2014).

Here I am discussing the psychological needs of Muslim
clients through analyzing the articles related to Islamic overview on
psychological need.

An
Islamic Take on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Psychological Needs

Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs is the theory in which Abraham Maslow gives five factors in
hierarchy that are the basic human needs and the fulfillment of which leads to
a person being motivated or in other words happy and at peace.

Physiological Needs:

Maslow
puts at the bottom of the hierarchy is of the physiological needs. The
physiological needs comprise of all the needs that are related to basic human
biological needs. In these needs there is food, water, sleeping, breathing etc.
Regarding them, Allah Almighty says in Quran:

“And it is He who has made the night for you as
clothing and sleep (a means for) rest and has made the day of resurrection.”
(25:47)

Furthermore,
Allah Almighty says:

“Also,
And when the prayer is ended, then disperse in the land and seek of Allah’s
bounty, and remember Allah much, that ye may be successful.” (62:10)

In
this Ayah Allah says who fulfills these needs of a person, therefore, one must
ask of these needs from Allah and no one else.

Safety Need:

In
the second level Maslow said that every human is concerned about the need for
safety. Every one of us wants safety for ourselves as well as for our future
generation. Islam in this regard has given a law in the form of Sharia and all
guidelines and instructions that protects and keeps the life and property of a
person safe.

Social Needs:

Allah
Almighty has created man as a social animal. Maslow’s third level says that
along with other needs there are the social needs of a human as well where
everyone wants to interact with other people, loves them and wants to be loved
and taken care of. In Quran, Allah Almighty says:

“And
of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find
tranquility in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy. Indeed in
that are signs for a people who have thought.” (30:21)

Although
this ayah is about the love between a husband and wife, however, those who think and ponder over the signs of Allah are
aware of the fact that humans also share a bond of love and this bond of love
has been present among them because Allah put it there. Therefore, a Muslim
must realize that humans are to love and support each other especially when
they live in the form of a group.

Esteem Need:

Self-esteem
is another need of humans. However, there are people who rise to the levels
where they want respect and want their esteem to be fulfilled. As Allah
Almighty says in Quran:

“Those
are the believers, truly. For them are degrees (of high position) with their
Lord and forgiveness and noble provision.” (8:4)

From
this ayah of Quran it is clear that it is Allah Almighty who assigns degrees or
positions that sooth and satisfy the self-esteem need of a person. Therefore,
whenever one feels low in self-esteem or does not feel it being fulfilled, he
or she needs to turn towards Allah and seek His assistance.

Self-Actualization Need:

When
all the needs of a human are fulfilled the next level of needs is the
self-actualization where a person tries to find about who he or she is and how
they can achieve their full potential.  Allah Almighty says in Quran:

“O
you who believe! Do your duty to Allah and fear Him. Seek the means of approach
to Him, and strive hard in His cause as much as you can. So that you may be
successful.” (5:35)

If
being successful means knowing who you truly are and what you need to do to
fulfill your true self, then the way to it is by walking in the way of Allah.
The more a person moves in His way, the more he or she gets to actualize their
self.

The
psychological needs theory from Islamic perspectives

 However the theory
is Based on the objective Islamic law (Maqasid al-Shari’iyyah), a hierarchical
human needs has been 4 construct into three needs. Starting with the lowest
need; the essential needs (aldaruriyyat), the complimentary needs
(al-hajjiyyat), and the embellishment needs (altahsiniyyat) (Kamali, 1991; and
Alias & Samsudin, 2005). The complimentary need is divided into five needs;
religion (ad-din), life (al-nafs), intellect (al-aql), lineage (al-nasb) and
property (almal). As we can see, the difference between Maslow?s needs theory
and al-daruriyyat needs is religion needs.

 “In Islam, religion
is the basic human needs as guidance for human life as a servant to the god
(Allah) and a representative (khalifah) in the world. In the light of religion,
this Maqasid al-Shari’iyyah theory shows flexibility in fulfilment of needs as
servant and khalifah. Next, based on this Islamic law, contemporary Muslim?
scholar simplified five categories of human need; physiological, material,
psychological, spiritual and mental or intellectual (Shariati, 1979; Nusair,
1983; Al-Jasmani, 1996; Glaachi, 2000; and Ali 2009). In Islamic perspective,
physiological needs located under primary drive, while spiritual needs,
psychological needs and intellectual needs located under second drive. The unique
of this human needs theory is spiritual needs. According to Ali, (2009)
spiritual need focus on faith, harmony, confidence and purpose in life to
absorb frustration, crisis, failure and so on. In other word, spiritual needs
help human to have a good life in adhering to Allah?s order and avoiding His
obedience”(Khair,Ahmad and Abd Hamid,2016).

 

Since these findings have
been documented across many cultures and contexts, the theory specifies
that people have evolved rather learned the needs. The needs are universal.

Now after reading
and analyzing came with a conclusion that counseling of psychological need is
very effective in reference with the Quranic verses.     

         

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