General algae, fungi or decaying organic matterRespiration-uses diffusionInternal

General Characteristics-does not have segmented bodies-ranges from less than 1 mm to more than 1m long-body is covered by a tough cuticle(a type of exoskeleton)-as the nematoda grows the old cuticle starts shedding and will create a new and larger one-body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and the contraction produces a thrashing motion-lacks circulatory systemEnvironments-found in most aquatic habitits-in the soil-in the moist tissues of plants -in the body fluids and tissues of animalsFeeding-food transferred throughout the body via fluid in the pseudocoelom-has alimentary canal(meaning they have a mouth, pharynx, intestine, rectum and anus and having two external body openings-free living nematodes uses grasping mouths and spines to catch and eat small animals-soil dwelling and aquatic nematodes eats things like algae, fungi or decaying organic matterRespiration-uses diffusionInternal Transport-has no internal transport system therefore relies on diffusion and move wastes and nutrients through their bodyExcretion-relies on diffusion to move waste and nutrients through their bodyResponse-Has a circum-enteric nerve ring with ganglia-has amphids as sense organs with mechanical and chemoreceptors at anterior region of the body-has phasmids(glanduio sensory structures at the posterior region of the body-nerves extends from ganglia in the head and run down the length of the body to control movementMovement-has longitudional muscles-moves like a whiplike motion,allowing them to whip back and forth propelling themselves forwardReproduction-reproduce sexually by internal fertilization-male deposits sperm inside female’s reproductive tract -parasitic roundworms have life cycles that involves two or three different hosts or multiple organs with one host-female may deposit 100000 or more fertilized eggs(zygoes) every day, and the zygotes has resistant cells that can survive harsh conditionsAnnelidaGeneral Characteristics-They are segmented worms that lives in the sea-Are coelomates-range from length from less that 1mm to more than 3m-can be divided into two main groups Polychaeta and oligochaetaHas fewer segment than polychaetes(Annelida Oligochaetes)Environment-Lives in the sea-in most freshwater habitat-damp soilFeeding-Alot of them have a muscular pharynx that can turn inside out or extend it, for picking up organic deposits (Annelida Polychaetes)-Many are adapted for feeding on organic matter, the ones that lives in tubes or burrows(Annelida Polychaetes)-has a mouth located under the head leading to a simple digestive tract consisting of a pharynx, an esophagus and an instestine with a anal opening(Annelida Oligochaete)-some aquatic worms feeds on small inverterbrates(Annelida Ogliochaetes)RespirationParapodia are richly supplied with blood vessels which also functions as gills(polychates)-respiration usually occurs through body wall while some has thin walled, feathery gills for gas exchange-oxygen dissolved in the soil water diffuses through the moist epidermisof the worm(Annelida Ogliochaete)Internal Transport-Usually have closed circulatory system, but in some polychaetes and leeches its open-has well developed blood vessels, like contractile vessels for blood to flow towards head above the gut and then returning back to the gut through more blood vessels-each body has lateral vessels distrubutedExcretion-Undigested material that is mixed with mucus secreted into the canal and is eliminated as fecal castings through the anus-has a thin walled storage, and a muscular gizzard for extracting the soil and remove the organic matter  that the worm eats(Annelida Ogliochaetes)-has specialized calciferous glands to remove excess calcium, magnestium, strontium, and phosphate to regulate these ions levels in the blood(Annelida Ogliochaetes)-solid wastes gets ejected from the mouth of the burrow(Annelida Ogliochaetes)-carried out by a pair of tubes in each segement(Annelida Ogliochates)Response-nervous system usually consists of a primitive brain or ganglionic mass located in head region connected by a ring of nerves to a ventral nerve cord that is throughout the length of the body-has sense organs such as eyes, taste buds, tactile tentacles, and organs of statocysts which helps for balance of the worm-has more developed region, with bare eyeys and sensory tenticles(Annelida Polychaetes) -has many contractile vessels or hearts(Annelida Ogliochates)Movement-Has a pair of paddle like or ridge like structure called parapodia(Annelida Polychaetes)-each parapodium has numerous chaetae, bristles made of chitin(Annelida Polychaetes)-Most drift and swim among the plank while many crawl on or burrow in the seafloor and some others live in tubes with bits of sand and broken shells(Annelida Polychaetes)-lacks parapodia(Annelida Ogliochaetes)Reproduction-earthworms(oligochaetes) cross fertilize(two of them aligning themselves in opposite direction in a way so they can exchange sperm-when the sperm exachange is done and they seperate, an organ called the clitellum secretes a cocoon of mucus that slides along the worm, picking up the eggs and then the stored sperm, then the cocoon slips off the worm’s head and remain in the soil while the embryos develop-some earthers can also reproduce asexually by fragmentation followed by regeneration-Reproduce sexually and seperate sexes(polychaetes Annelida)-fertilization of eggs occurs exterannly in seawater(polychaetes Annelida)-Are hermaphrodities(Annelida Ogliochaetes)-some go through extreme changes in appearance and become active swimmers diong the time of the year that sex cells begin to mature(Annelida Polychaetes)-some of the species portion that contains the sex cells breaks free and engages in swarming and spwaning, with the asexual part behind to regenerate the part that has been lostSwarming generally occurs at night and is correlated with particular phases of the moon. Some species perform a kind of nuptial dance, swimming in circles as they spawn. In some species the worms liberate a luminous secretion, which produces circles of light on the ocean surface as they dance. (reword this i have no idea how to)PlatyhelminthesGeneral Characteristics-From kingdom animalia-Soft bodied with bilateral symmetry-Has no body cavity-Has multiple kinds of flatworms(can be parasitic species such as tapeworms and flukes)-Branches to multiple sub groups(Turbellaria, non parasitic, and Cestoda, Trematoda, and monogenea which are parasitic)-Turbellaria has groups, which are acoels, rhabdocoels, triclads and polyclads-also known as planarians, large flatworms with three branched gut(turbellaria,triclads)-larger than triclads, having a more flat and leaflike body(turbelleria,polyclads)-gut is subdivided into numerous branches(turbelleria,polyclads)-Also called flukes(Trematoda)-Same body form and digestive cavity has turbellerians(Treamatoda)-Has groups Dignea and aspidogastrea(Treamoda)-Has complex life cycle with up to 7 stages(Treamoda, Digenea)-adult range from 0.2mm and 6mm in length(trematoda, digenea)-has a few unsegmented species(cestoda)Environment-Marine-Fresh water-Damp terrestrial habitatFeeding-has fine branches of the gastrovascular cavity distribute food directly to the animals cell-has only one opening for both digestion of ingestion-Has pharynx(turbellaria)-has no digest cavity, ventral mouth and a pharynx sometimes(turbella,acoels)-have straight, unbranched digestive cavities(turbellaria, rhabdocoels)-has pharynx can be extruded for food capture(turbelleria, triclads)-gut is subdivided into numerous branches(turbelleria,polyclads)-prey on smaller animals or feed on dead animals(turbelleria,triclads)-Has oral suckers, sometimes with hooks which they use to attach to hosts(Trematoda)-Adults have 2 holdfasts, which is ring around the mouth and a larger sucker midway of the underside of the flatworm(trematoda,digenea)-Has muscular pharnyx to ingest cells, cell fragments, body fluids or blood(trematoda, digenea)-absorbs dissolved nutrients from the host during the snail stages(two adult stage)-has no mouth or digestive system since food is absorbed through the cuticle(cestoda)-adults live in the digestive tract of vertebrates and the larvae forms froms encysts in the flesh of vetebrates and interbrates(cestoda)-spends their entire life cycle as parasites on a single host, most often on the gills and skins of fish, there arent human parasites(monogenea)-uses hooks and attachment organs at the posterior end to hold on to the fish(monogenea-Respiration-Uses diffusion to take in oxygen they need and release the carbon dioxide that they do not requireInternal Transport-uses gastrovascular cavity to distribute food throughout the flatwormExcretion-Apparatus consists of protonephridia(networks of tubules with ciliated structures called flame bulbs that pull fluid through branched ducts opening to the outside)-elimination of nitrogenous waste, water, gas exchange occurs by diffusion across the body surfaceResponse-Has ocelli, helps distinguish where light is coming from, aka another way to say eye spots(turbella)Mostly concentrated on the head region(or front end which is another way to say it)-has more sense organs and more complex brain then most turbellerians,has eyes and tactile lobes on the head region(turbelleria,triclads)-some species have multiple eyes scattered throughout the body(turbelleria,polyclads)Movement-Cilia helps the smaller flatworm move-For larger species, they glide along by muscle wavesReproduction-eggs they lay may be distributed on land or in water,depends on where they are living in during early stages(treamatoda, digenea)-intermediete stages transfer the parasite from one host to another, with one host called definitive host which is where the flatworms become adults-early stage hosts consists of snails that lives on land or water, and having a arthopod or a fish as their second host, ex hatches the egg in intestine of snail and moving to fish then penetrating flesh of a body and move to the small intestine of that animal and lay their eggs in their intestines-can produce 10000-1000000 more times as many eggs than free living flatworm-has series of linear arranged reproductive segements called proglittids(cestoda)-has a knob called a scolex, which holds a circle of hooks or other attachment organs(cestoda)-proglottids constantly bud off and then becomes larger gradually, when they matrue they are filled with male and female reproductive organs(cestoda)-cross fertilizatoin takes place either with adjacent worms or by 2 proglottids, sometimes self fertilization occurs as well(cestoda)-some species the proglottids filled with eggs are shed or the fertilized eggs leave the adult host by feces, and if the eggs gets consumed by another intermediete host, the life cycle will continue(cestoda)-Eggs on hatching releases and ciliated larva that enables them to reach a new host(monogenea)