Internet of things is basically
an interconnection of various physical devices, smart devices and other items
connected such as electronics, software’s, actuators, sensors etc. These
devices are connected in a network which enables these devices to collect and
exchange data. IOT focuses on transforming the real world objects into
intelligent virtual objects. It aims to bring everything under a common
infrastructure. Internet is a global system of interconnected networks which
use standard TCP/IP suite to serve various users which are connected to it. It
is a network of networks which are interconnected to each other by huge amounts
of electronics, wireless and optimal networking technologies. Things can be any
device, object, person etc. Things are not only limited to electronic devices
or gadgets but they include other object as well. Internet of Things can be
defined as “An open and comprehensive network of intelligent objects that have
the capacity to auto-organize, share information, data and resources, reacting
and acting in face of situations and changes in the environment”2. Internet
of Things is considered as a global network which allows between humans and
things by exchanging data between both these entities and by giving unique
identity to each object 2.
There are three primary elements
of IOT which are:-
a) Hardware- This is basically an
interconnection of sensors, actuators and embedded communication hardware 3.
b) Middleware- This element
provide on demand storage and computing tools to analyze data 3.
c) Presentation- This element includes
visualization and interpretation tools which are compatible with different
platforms and which can be designed for various applications 3.
IOT is a dynamic global
interconnection of network with self-configuring capabilities which are based
on the standard communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” are
connected to each other. These “things” have identities, physical attributes
and virtual characteristics which uses intelligent interfaces and are
seamlessly integrated in an information network. Internet of Things is a
network of physical objects that are embedded with technology to communicate
and sense and interact with the internal states and external environments. IOT
can be combined with other related technologies and concepts such as Cloud
Computing, Future Internet, Big Data, Robotics and Semantic Technologies.
The Internet of Things uses
synergies which are generated by the convergence of the various Internet
Consumers like business, industrial consumers. This convergence creates an
open, global network which connects people, data and the various objects. Cloud
Computing can be used to connect the intelligent objects which sense and
transmit huge amounts of data, which helps in creating services which is not
achievable without this level of connectivity and analytical intelligent 4.
Some of the fundamental
characteristics of IOT are: –
Interconnectivity – This characteristic means
that anything can be interconnected with the global information and
communication infrastructure 4.
Things – related services – IOT can provide
things related services such as privacy protection and consistency between
physical things and the other virtual things which are associated with them 4.
Heterogeneity – The device which are connected
by IOT are heterogeneous which are based on different hardware platforms and
Dynamic Changes – The state of devices can
change dynamically e.g., connected and/or disconnected, change in location etc 4.
There is no single consensus when
it comes to the architecture for IOT, which is agreed upon universally.
Different researchers have proposed different architectures. We will be discussing
a few in this section.