Introduction have been difficult. One of the important


India, is known for its
culinary delights. A country known for its sugary snacks is soon making its way
to a healthy lifestyle. With a young and tech savvy population, consumers are
emerging as a health conscious population. Labeling is defining in the Federal
Food, Drug and Cosmic Act (FFDCA) in the US as a written, printed or graphic
matter upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers. Labeling is a
subset of packaging. Vendor/ Retailer needs to label their products.The label
may be a simple tag attached to the manufactured goods or an richly designed
graphic which is a part of the package.

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consumers to eat healthy is no trivial task. As health is valued by everybody
and thus, is one of the essential drivers of human behaviour, attempts to
change eating habbits by informing consumers about the link between diet and
health have been difficult. One of the important tools in trying to bring about
more healthy eating patterns has been nutrition labelling.


Nutritional labeling is
found to affect the purchase behavior significantly. Some evidence reveals the
provision of nutrition information may allow consumers to switch consumption
away from unhealthy food products in those food categories in the direction of
healthy products in food sector easily.
Improvements in nutrients intake of the population depend on the interaction of
demand and supply forces in the food markets. On the demand side consumers’
interest in the purchase of diets and products with improved nutritional
profiles has a direct effect on nutrient intake.


Nutritional labels can
simplify the whole concept of healthy eating.  It helps to keep track of the amount of fat
and sugar, sodium and fiber, protein and carbohydrates. It also allows
consumers to make an informed judgement of a product’s overall value (APO,
2002). Therefore, the nutritional panel is a guide to a better diet and a
healthier life (FDA, 1998). Consumers can use the nutritional label to make
food choices according to the Dietary Guidelines developed by health experts
who emphasize the importance
of a well-balanced diet.







The pack of the food is
required to be marked with the following information:

a. Name of the product and
trademark if any

b. Name and address of the

c. Batch or code number

d. Net quantity

e. Date of manufacture

f. List of ingredients

g. Nutritional Claim

h. Permitted Additives

i. MRP

j. Best before date

k. Green dot marking
vegetarian food



to Labeling


Marketers use labeling to
their products to bring identification. This kind of labeling helps a viewer to
differentiate the product from the rest in the shelves of the market. There are
several used of the label for the products in the market.

Labeling is used for
packaging the product. In marketing, a marketer can also use a sticker in
edible products to impart knowledge of the ingredients of the food items. This
helps to spread awareness among the customers about the item they are consuming
and labeling also helps to mention ingredients.


Types of labeling in marketing

There are various types of
labeling in marketing which are as follows:


Branded Product Labels

Foodstuffs need to be identified
to help with identification and play a key role in company brand construction.

Branded Product Labels are to
be securely bonded to the product surface I such a way that it is best suited
to that product.

are two types of branded labels:

Removable: Removable product labels,
on the other hand, need to adhere to the product only until they need to be


Non- Removable: With permanent labels, the
bonding has to be fixed and the label should be difficult to remove and resistant
to a number of factors like enviormental, physical or chemical etc.


Eco or Information Labels

Information Labels or
Eco-Labels are used on products such as foodstuff and FMCG. They are used to
impart information to the consumer about the product. Often these types are
made out of eco-friendly substances so that they do not interfere with the
products they are associated with.


Other Product Label Types

There are a number of
different label types that are in common usage around the world that are
regular mass produced by specialist printing services.



What is product labeling?

Product Labeling is an
important feature in marketing. It helps to market the product allowing
customers to know about the item and give necessary messages including
ingredients, instructions, and uses.

Product labeling can be done
in a variety of sizes, materials, and shapes. This plays a key role as a point
of sale display in the market shelves. They can also communicate information
about how to handle a product or how to dispose of it. One can use the labeling
for security reasons so that the product should not be misused. It is for these
purposes that labeling has the logo or the trademark of the company.


What does a label include?

A label needs to comply with
the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (CCA). This Act is required to give
information to consumers, such as:

The mandatory consumer
product information standards under the CCA

Industry specific
regulations, such as the Food Standards Code

Labels required by customs
for some imported products under the Commerce (Trade Descriptions) Act.






Review of

review of literature on food label use connected to three types of food label
information that are most confined to conveying nutrition and health
information: nutrition labels, ingredient lists, and claims.

food label use studies focused on nutrition labels; although, the ingredients’
lists and health/nutrient claims also play equally important roles in conveying
the products’ health information to customers , therefore, are regulated in the
US by the FDA.

EU, the regulations on food labels are limited to claims. Although food
producers willingly provide nutrition labels and ingredients lists on most
packaged foods. There have been past researches by Campos et al; Mhurchu &
Gorton, 2007, which adopts two broad categories to systematize the prose on
food label use:

The frequency: how often food labels are used

The understading: the ability to understand labels

measures can be supplementary divided into:

 Subjective Measures: self-reported evaluation
of frequency, self ability to apply information

Measures: observation of food label consultation or evaluation of comprehension
using questions.




Nutrition Labels

Over 98% of FDA-regulated
processed, packaged foods have Nutrition Facts panels (NFPs) in the US and
roughly 84% of products in Europe have nutrition labels. Nutrition labels
typically contain information on serving size,calories, and amounts and/or
daily values of several vitamins, minerals, macronutrients, fats, carbohydrate,

In the US, the content of
NFPs is government regulated and includes calories, serving size, nutrients,
and percentage of daily intake of each nutrient.

On the basis of primary as
well as secondary research almost to two-thirds of people are able to
understand the basic nutrition information given on food labels. On the other
hand, understanding what the label says, decreases for more complex information.
For example, Levy and Fein (Levy & Fein, 1998)
found that most consumers 78% accurately identified nutrient differences
between two products; however, only 20% are able to calculate the contribution
of a single food to their overall daily intake.


Ingredient lists

Additionally, the non-nutrition
information e.g. additives, ingredient lists contain significant nutrition
information that contributes to the consumer’s assessment of a food’s
healthfulness of the food that they are consuming.

The US Dietary Guidelines
2010 states that: “The ingredients list can be used to find out whether a food
or beverage contains synthetic trans-fats, solid fats, added sugars, whole
grains, and refined grains.” Ingredient lists provide an account of ingredients
of a product in descending order of proportion by weight (i.e., ingredients at
the end of the list are present in smaller quantities). The FDA recommends that
the lists contain all the specifications of all the ingredients to ensure that
the consumer is informed.

For example, basic constituents
of foods must be listed and products containing ingredients consisting of
several components must be listed in parentheses ({}).

The Font size and presentation should be in compliance to
federal regulations to maximize legibility, but even when they do, the font
size is a common problem for consumers’ use of ingredient lists

Consumers frequently
consult the ingredient list portion of food labels. For example, self-reported
frequency of ingredient list use as well as use of nutrition labels and claims is
52% in a study by Ollberding et al., 2010 and higher 78%
in another by Norazmir, Norazlanshah, Naqieyah, & Anuar, 2012.


and Nutrient Claims

claims are proposed to inform scientifically established health benefits related
to a particular food, for example, “diets high in calcium may reduce the risk
of osteoporosis in people 50 years and above.” Another goal of nutrient content
claim is to commune the value or relative amount of a specific nutrient within
a food product (e.g., fat free, good source of fiber, low calorie, baked, sugar
free etc).

have shown to impact how food label information is processed and influence
other dietary behaviors. For example, consumers sometimes use claims in place
of NFPs. Also, claims sometimes have little impact on product accessment and can
also be confusing and misleading. Nevertheless, the claim understanding is
higher among those with greater experience and education (Dean, Lähteenmäki,
& Shepherd, 2011; Verbeke, Scholderer, & Lähteenmäki, 2009).





Knowledge Construction

knowledge refers to the information of concepts and processes related to
nutrition and health including information of diet and disease, diet and
health, foods consisting major sources of nutrients, dietary recommendations
(Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; McKinnon, Giskes, & Turrell, 2014; Moorman,
1996; Parmenter & Wardle, 1999).

there could be a different or narrow definition of nutrition knowledge which suggests
that a broad definition of nutrition knowledge is needed to capture the complex
and wide-ranging nature of the information used to update dietary choice. There
is a similar argument which has the ability to use food labels draws on a wide
range of situations and behaviors that could potentially draw on many areas of
nutrition knowledge. (Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; Li, Miniard, & Barone,
2000), Parmenter and Wardle (1999)

 For example, acquaintance of the relationship
between cancer and diet may cause consumers to focus on the information given
on the nutrition label and the anti-carcinogenic ingredient in the list.
Knowledge of intake recommendations may join these pieces of nutrition
information to decide whether the food product represents a healthful choice
within the context of other foods the person consumes in a day. In accordance
with the information provided, the various aspects of nutrition knowledge/
facts get relatable in such a way that they support each other









Attractive product layout is also
helpful in differentiating the competitive brands and help to make final
decisions based on product design. A study indicates that 60% to 70% decision
of final purchase is made on the basis of product labeling and product design. Frequently
consumers packaging plays that role. That is, the packaging plays the role of
nutrtional communication.