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Kwok Ling Yiu  3735HK005My question  for this Individual Research is ‘What are the effects of educational inequality?’ and it links to the topic of poverty and inequality.Introduction:Educational inequality is a huge problem in the world nowadays. A lot of children in poorer countries, especially young girls in places such as South Africa, are not getting adequate education. Don’t you think it’s unfair for people who are poorer to have a worse education? Wouldn’t you agree that it’s unfair for schools or offices to only accept students with high grades or those that have been to universities? Don’t you think that it’s a huge injustice towards those who are not able to apply for different job opportunities because they were not able to gain sufficient education? It is clear we should reduce educational inequality, but how?Global Perspective:In places such as Zimbabwe, South Africa and  Uganda, the Africa Learning Barometer had found that if you’re a poor, female child attending school in a rural region, you are far more likely to only learn the basic skills, such as reading, writing and maths. This makes them unable to reach to their full potential. To some extent, it is useless to just teach them the most basic elements but withhold them from learning deeper levels of the subject, as they will not apply this in real life. (Agbor) Schools in poor places such as South Africa, the percentage of boys and girls going to school are mostly unequal, with a ratio of more boys than girls. The reason for this is because most girls are taught to work at home, for example doing chores. This fact shows that girls are limited with their choices because of the gender inequality in developing countries that believes that a girl only belongs in a house rather than the work field.  In the UK, figures have shown that there is a 1 year gap in school reading ability for 3 year olds, as well as a 15 month vocabulary gap between that of 5 year olds; worsening the education difference between the richest and the poorest countries. People who are less educated will have difficulties discussing global issues in field such as business and politics with other countries, this leads to the poorer countries gaining less power and resources compared to the richer ones, also ending up in a vicious cycle.  This inequality is clear on a community-level as well. Almost 50% of children who are claiming free school meals – and therefore those who are from poorer families –  are getting an average of a D grade or below in their GCSEs. Therefore we can see this vicious cycle occurring on a smaller scale. (“Teach First”) Personal Response:As mentioned above, there are many problems with educational inequality on a global scale, such as poorer countries only get the most basic education and knowledge, the gender gap resulting in girls lacking the same education opportunities as boys, and a huge education difference between rich and poor countries. I think three main reasons are responsible for worsening the issue of educational inequality worldwide: people from poorer countries cannot afford to pay for expensive education, they are not educated enough to help their children with their studies and may not even prioritise education in the first place, perhaps preferring their children to leave school to enter the workforce early. This results in a decrease in job opportunities, and a lower income wage; therefore the next generations are caught in a vicious cycle, with lower and lower education levels and standards of living. Scenarios and courses of action:A solution could be to give all children – boys, girls, rich and poor alike – the same starting point in their education. The government and community could also help with this by providing enough schools in each town so that every child gets a adequate education. They could also build learning areas such as a library, or self studying spaces for a better learning attitude outside school. This is because I believe everyone should have equal resources for learning.Evaluation of sources:Teach First is a really useful resource as it has reported information of students in the UK, with a direct comparison between rich and poor children sharing the same ages. This gave readers a clear understanding of the great difference in education. Local Perspective:Firstly, there are not enough university spaces in Hong Kong, thus it is not fair because not everyone gets an opportunity to study in an university. Secondly, it is unfair for people whose families have less income as studies have shown that those with more wealthy families are able to afford a better and longer education. (Inter-Asia Cultural Studies)In 2011, it was found that there  was a dramatic difference in University enrollment rates between the poor and the rich, with 48.2% of the rich getting into Universities while only 11% of the poor got in.Poor students more likely to study non-degree tertiary courses (30% of poor students compared to 23.6% of rich students) – therefore this means they will be less competitive in the job market in the future. This results in a negative cycle in which the poor will not get as many job opportunities as the rich.(“Education Is Key to Closing Hong Kong’s Wealth Gap”)Personal Response:It is unfair as almost the number of rich students getting into universities is almost 4 times that of poor students. Looking at it overall, nearly 80% of the rich had been successful in enrolling in University, while only 41% of the poor had been able to do so.  I think this is unfair because of the workload of some of the poor students with their family problems. This shows the shockingly big gap between university enrollment rates between the rich and poor.Scenarios and courses of action:By giving both rich and poor students a same head start in their education, either from the primary section or in kindergarten, the difference between their IQs and their individual engagement could be reduced. By giving them a same starting point, the inequality of the children’s families will not affect any aspects of their education in anyway, including their grades, furthermore their future education and job opportunities.Evaluation of sources:”Education Is Key to Closing Hong Kong’s Wealth Gap” is a reliable source as it has shown clearly what the problems of education are in Hong Kong, through explaining findings from studies. It’s research, which has been conducted using reliable methods on a large number of students, has shown that there  was a dramatic difference in University enrollment rates between the poor and the rich.Personal Perspective:Everyone should have the chance to get a good education, regardless of whether they’re rich or poor, male or female. It is unfair for people who are born into certain circumstances to be disadvantaged in their studies. It is extremely uneven to assume that poor people are not smart, and that girls cannot study. I think everyone should be given the chance to learn and work towards the top. I also believe that it would be unfair if universities and offices only accepted people who had gotten good grades in secondary school, without considering other factors, such as their personality, talents and experience. In Hong Kong and most countries, teenagers who did not score well in their IGCSEs or IBs have a slim chance of getting in an University, I think universities should give others a second chance in working their way through their studies and earning a good job. Moreover, schools in poorer countries are currently suffering a extensive difference in gender equality. Statistics show that only 40% or less females are going to school, which is a huge contrast to the 60% of males who are being sent to school. To me, it is really unfair that communities do not let females study: especially as I know many intelligent girls that love to learn. Lastly, in higher income countries such as the UK, reports shows the immense differences in vocabulary and reading abilities between the richest and poorest regions, which shows the wealthy gap in education inequality exists in both developed and developing countries. I think that the schools should give free education to those who are poor, in order to give all children an opportunity to learn, and to lessen the knowledge gap between both rich and poor children.Personal Response:The reality that we are facing right now is extremely shocking, since there are inequalities that impact and limit access to the education which everyone deserves. As it has been mentioned above, the potential growth in each student’s ability to learn may be extremely high, no matter what social class they are from. I believe that that this potential must not be wasted, and that all children should at least be educated to a certain level, in order to give them a fighting chance at getting a suitable job and contributing to the economical growth of their home country. Scenario and courses of action:This problem could be solved through building more schools, which would help by creating more places for more students, enabling more to be able to enroll in school. Another solution could be offering cheaper school fees, perhaps with government help.  Either with a cheaper school fees, or maybe government help. Also some communities could introduce  scholarship plans for certain amounts of children, so that insufficient money would not be a reason to hold back children from attending school.Conclusion and Reflection:The effects of educational inequality mostly lean towards the negative side, as the researchers have shown that the differences between the rich and poor people’s education are massive in terms of the differences in their average grades of differences in their average grades. The research has also shown that rich people have better opportunities to enroll in and graduate university compared to the poor people. The main causes of the problem are the quality of education in each school, and their different learning environments, as well as the conditions of the students’ homes of the each and individual’s homes. The education with a higher tuition cost is believed to have better, modern and a more advanced teaching methods. Also the people with more money can usually attend cram school, or afford private tutoring. The poor people on the other hand, experience the opposite. Not only can they not afford good quality education in the first place, but also cannot pay for the tutorials outside school The solution seems to be simple, but depending on the budget provided by donations, or the government, some countries may find the process difficult. This is something that forces certain communities to do nothing and wait until they have enough money before they can proceed in building other learning facilities or schools. But without solving and reducing the gap in education inequality, the country will continue to have other types of inequality  such as wage gaps, depending on the kind of job the students with different educational levels can get.BibliographyAgbor, Julius. “Poverty, Inequality and Africa’s Education Crisis | Brookings Institution.”Brookings. Brookings, 28 July 2016. Web. 13 Mar. 2017.”Millennium Development Goal 2.” UNDP in South Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2017.”Education and Gender Equality.” UNICEF Worldwide. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2017.Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2017.”Education Is Key to Closing Hong Kong’s Wealth Gap.” South China Morning Post. N.p., 21 Feb. 2013. Web. 03 Apr. 2017.”Teach First.” What Is Educational Inequality? | Teach First. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.CommentsDo you have 3 sections (Global, national/local and Personal?)YesDoes each of the 3 sections have its 3 necessary parts? (Analysis/evaluation, personal response, future scenario/course of action)YesIs there an appropriate structure for analysis/evaluation? e.g cause/effect, advantage/disadvantage, problem/solutionYesAre the future scenarios/courses of action logical and well developed?YesAre the personal responses well developed?YesIs there a good conclusion which includes reflection on essay writing process and skills?YesHave you used good /reliable sources (or does it look like a lot of googling?)? Have you referenced correctly using MLA 7 (parenthetical and bibliography)YesGrammar and SpellingYes