Oswald AveryOswald Avery was born on October 21, 1877 in Halifax,Canada. Avery’s greatest andmost influential discovery was that DNA was responsible for heredity.Schooling/EducationBefore attending a university or college, Oswald Avery went to New York Male GrammarSchool first college that Avery attended was Colgate University (located in Hamilton, NewYork) in 1896. Avery showcased his musical talents at this school and surprisingly didn’t investthat much in sciences unless it was necessary. After he graduated with a bachelor’s in humanitiesin 1900, he attended Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Avery went tothis university until 1904, which is when he received his medical degree. After this stint withmedical-related studies, he decided to delve into bacteriological research by deciding in 2007 toattend Hoagland Laboratory in Brooklyn.Research and DiscoveriesIn 1913, Avery joined the staff of Rockefeller Institute Hospital and began studyingpneumonia bacteria, diplococcus pneumoniae. Avery and some coworkers were able to find thatthis bacteria had the makeup of a polysaccharide. They were also the first to discover that apolysaccharide could spark a response by the immune system. During his time at Rockefeller, heworked with many well-known scientists including Alphonse R. Dochez, Maclyn McCarty, andColin MacLeod.In 1932, Avery began his research on heredity by analyzing an experiment done by FrederickGriffith in which he was able to conclude that a harmful strain of pneumonia bacteria could passon its virulence to future generations of that bacteria. Avery and his colleague, McCarty, beganconducting experiments that involved harmful and non-harmful pneumonia bacteria. The pairfound the exact same results that Griffith did (when harmful bacteria (S-type) was added to thegroup of non-harmful bacteria (R-type) the R-type bacteria started to change into the S-type).After this, they were able to separate the active transforming substance and concluded that it wasDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Avery, McCarty, and Colin MacLeod published their findings inthe Journal of Experimental Medicine in 1944. Avery’s work started to be truly recognized onlywhen importance of DNA was further proved.AwardsOswald Avery had received many awards throughout his career, including: John Philips MemorialAward (1932), Paul Ehlrich Gold Medal (1933), Kober Medal (1946), and the Pasteur Gold Medal (1950).Even though every award holds their own significance and importance, one award that he received isarguably more impressive than any that were previously mentioned. Oswald Avery had been given theCopley Medal in 1945, which is awarded for achievements in any branch of science. This award has beenaround for longer than the Nobel Prize, and is said to be the most prestigious scientific award in the UK.