p.p1 movements controls impulses and considers future consequences

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largest, frontmost part of brain; in evolutionary terms, it is the newest part
left and right hemispheres, separated by a fissure
origin of conscious thought
cerebral tissue folded into gyri, with depressions called sulci

Frontal Lobe

higher cognitive functions
last part of brain to reach maturity
voluntary movements
controls impulses and considers future consequences
long term memories
understanding language
activates dopamine (major neurotransmitter in reward and motivation)
regulates attention

Parietal Lobe

behind frontal lobe
process visual & sensory information
touch sensation
perception of visual senses
reading, writing, math
spatial orientation
cognition & information processing

Occipital Lobe

sits at back of brain, behind frontal & parietal lobes
newest part (evolutionarily)
dedicated to processing visual information

mapping out the space around you
color determination
relates vision and memory (familiar sights)
size, depth, distance

Temporal Lobe

sits below temples on either side of brain, crosses both hemispheres

often considered a pair of lobes

forms long-term, conscious memories
interpreting visual stimuli and recognizing objects
hearing & understanding speech
helps control homeostasis
speech production

Corpus Callosum

bundle of fibers in center of brain
contains ~200 million axons
white matter
communication across both of the brain hemispheres
eye movement
tactile location (helps us locate an area of touch)
balances attention & arousal


sits at back of skull, behind occipital lobe
vital for controlling voluntary actions
positioning of body
maintains muscle tone
coordinates fine movements (playing video games, etc.)

Limbic System

important for controlling emotion
instincts, self-preservation
formation of memories


relay of nervous impulses to the appropriate location in cerebral cortex, where they are experienced as a sensation of pain, temperature, etc.
control state of consciousness (awakeness/sleep)


synthesizes releasing hormones, stimulates pituitary gland to release endocrine hormones

connects endocrine system with the nervous system

regulates metabolic processes and homeostasis (ex: temperature control)
coordinates autonomic nervous system


intense emotions (fear!)
processing emotional memory


declarative memory (recalling events, facts, etc.)
conversion of short-term memories to long-term memory
involvement in mental illnesses

hippocampus appears shrunken in schizophrenic patients

spatial navigation

Brain Stem

posterior end of brain
continuous with spinal cord
regulates cardiac, respiratory functions
maintain consciousness
regulates subconscious functions (heart rate, breathing)
motor & sensory innervation to face and neck


sits atop pons and medulla
vision & hearing
regulates body temperature


sits beneath the midbrain
controls switch from inhalation to exhalation
facial expressions & sensation
posture control
swallowing & bladder control

Medulla Oblongata

regulates autonomic functions
controls sneezing, coughing, vomiting, & reflex centers
controls blood pressure
helps control circulatory system by detecting abnormalities in chemical composition of blood (can change pH if too acidic, etc.)