Problem: to make or receive calls. Solution: One


The problem of indoor coverage
has become a very realistic problem these days and it is increasing day by day.
The key to an uninterrupted indoor coverage is a signal that can travel to a
greater distance and is largely uninterrupted. But the construction of modern
buildings that contain many things like treated glass, steel frames etc. block
the signal.

Generally, higher the frequency,
shorter is the range of frequency. Hence, the problem is further enhanced in
the 5G scenario as the signal is going to be transmitted at very high
frequencies which will further shorten the range and penetrating capacity of
the signal.

The lack of indoor coverage is
affecting the businesses inside the buildings to a great extent. In a research
from company named Aruba HPE it has been found that about 60 percent of
employees have linked the availability of mobile technology to be more
productive at work. Owing to this reason, the quality of mobile coverage is
becoming an important parameter for companies while renting their space. Now a
days we even have companies like WiredScore that certify the quality of
infrastructure for digital connectivity in commercial buildings. Companies fear
losing out on some important clients if they tell them that they have to go out
to make or receive calls.



One of the solutions that were
initially thought of was to put in the network inside the buildings that could
provide optimal quality & coverage to those inside the building. But this
had its own problems as stated below:

1.       It
was thought to be an expensive solution as it would have required expertise for
the purpose of handling the cable work and also the equipment that were needed
were expensive.

2.       Since
the mobile operators were providing the service for the specific building, they
expected a rent from it as they considered this as an additional source of
revenue generation. Since the people were not ready to pay the premium, it
became a low priority business for the operators.

3.       The
makers of in-building solution faced the biggest challenge in making it host
neutral. This means that once the network has been set up in the building, it
must be robust enough to support any mobile operator. If this thing is not
taken care of, then the building might lose its aesthetic value due to
continuous change in the wiring inside the building.

To overcome all these problem
another solution consisting of Distributed Antennae System (DAS) was thought
of. The key points for DAS planning are:

1.       Identifying
the potential buildings where the DAS system could be implemented and then making
proper implementation plan by preparing complete link diagram.

2.       Implementing
the DAS without disturbing the aesthetics of the building.

3.       Making
sure that the DAS is providing optimal quality, coverage and is capable of
handling the capacity inside the building by doing thorough testing.

The basic principle used in the
modern DAS system is to split the power transmitted by a single antenna into
multiple antennas that are separated in space so as to provide better and
reliable coverage which in turn would also increase the capacity as there would
be less number of people per antenna. This essentially also means splitting a
single large cell into multiple smaller cells. The operating cost of these
modern DAS is significantly lower than the traditional DAS systems which
required a full-size base station and a dedicated connectivity back to its backbone
network. The operating and maintenance cost of these base stations and the
dedicated link was huge thus holding back the operators from setting it up. The
modern DAS can operate even with the internet and does not necessarily require
the backbone connectivity.