Sufficient technical and economic limits of the field

 

Sufficient
pressure should be provided in the gas cylinder so as to enable students obtain
accurate values of porosity that they can relate with. This can be achieved by
using alternative sources of gas such as CO2 and O2.

Recommendations

 

2.    
From the experiment and analysis of the
results obtained, the values of the core grain volume, core pore volume and
porosity have been greatly altered by the calibration of the apparatus
(Porosimeter). However, the determination of the porosity of the reservoir rock
is fundamental to ascertaining the quantity of reservoir fluids in place so as
to establish the technical and economic limits of the field development plan.

1.    
Since a large value was obtained for the
porosity, it can be concluded that the core plug is from a highly porous
formation such as unconsolidated sandstone or a vugular carbonate rock with
vugs.

Conclusions

 

2.    
The direction/orientation of the core plug
when placed in the sample holder does not affect the values of P1
and P2.

1.    
I observed that the Porosimeter did not
have sufficient pressure to induce the required volume of gas to the core to
perform the experiment and hence, the output of the pressure readings was not
coherent with the calibrated values of V1 and V2.

Observations

 

OBSERVATIONS,
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.     I
checked the O-ring contained within the sample holder to ensure it did not need
replacement and ensured there was no foreign particles in the sample holder.

 

MAINTENANCE

 

3.    
I avoided parallax error by reading the
pressure gauge values directly (perpendicular to the gauge).

2.    
I made sure that the pressure values
stabilized before taking my readings of pressure.

1.    
I ensured that the connection to the gas
source (cylinder was tightly fixed to prevent the evacuation of gas).

PRECAUTIONS

× 100% = 22.28%

Porosity =

Core Pore Volume, VP = VB-VG
= 67.75 – 52.65 = 15.1cm3

Core Grain Volume, VG (cm3)
= V2-V3 = 165.31 – 112.66 = 52.65cm3

V1 = 60.18 cm3
and V2 = 165.31

Core bulk volume (cm3) VB
 

Data
analysis

 

P2 = 96.5 psi

P1 = 180.65 psi (off
before P1)

V2 = 165.31cm3

V1 = 60.18cm3

Current Porosimeter Calibration =
40psi

Diameter of the Core Sample = 3.7 cm3

Length of the Core Sample = 6.3 cm3

Data
Records

RESULTS AND
ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.     
I made sure the P1 stabilized and recorded
the value

7.     
I turned the “P1 Lock In” valve to
the “Off” position.

6.     
I rotated the regulator in a clockwise
direction, until I reached the required pressure, 180 psi

5.     
I turned the “P2 Test” valve to the
“Off” position.

4.     
I loosened the sample holder to insert
my core for analysis, and I tightened it back.

3.     
The length and diameter of the core
used were measured and documented using a veneer caliper.

2.     
I turned the unit on and allowed it
to warm up for 5 to 10 minutes. After the unit warms up, the display read zero.

1.     
Before starting my experiment, I placed
all the valves (P1,P2) in vertical position. Also rotated counter clockwise the
regulators on the front panel.

Procedure A – Without a Vacuum
(Normal Porosity Sample)

 

PROCEDURE

 

Included
Instrument used are; namely; Core samples, Veneer Calipers

 

Figure 3
– Front Panel of Model 350 Porosimeter.

 

Figure 2
– Placement of Core Sample.

This Instrument is used for measuring the
effective porosity of a core sample. This work based on the principle of
Boyle’s Law. However the pressure applied for this experiment was 180psi.

 

Figure 1
– The OFITE Model 350 Core Porosimeter.

Apparatus

EXPERIMENT

 

This
implies that,

V
= Volume of the gas

P
= Pressure of the gas

where,

,

According
to Boyle’s Law, the pressure exerted by the gas in a container of known volume
is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas. This can be mathematically
expressed as:

The equipment used in
this experiment works on the principle of Boyles Law.

–       

–    
Absolute
Porosity =

Based on the pore
connection;

–         
Secondary/Induced
Porosity

–         
Primary/Original
porosity

Stated are some
classifications of porosity, based on the mode of formation.

It is measured in
percentage or as a fraction.

Porosity
 =

The
relationship is given below;

A
reservoir rock considered to have to the ability to store fluids is very
important property. The reservoir rock contains small pores which can be a
porous media. Fluids are held in this small pores until they are produced,
hence the amount of pore spaces in a rock makes a good reservoir rock.
Therefore, one very important reservoir parameter is porosity. There are
different methods in which porosity can be measured; It can be measure either
from core obtained during drilling operation or from log analysis. To measure
porosity directly from core, it of importance estimate porosity from core
samples. Porosity is therefore the ability of a reservoir rock to store fluid.
Mathematically, it is said to be the ratio of pore volume to the bulk volume.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

CHAPTER 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This report contains the
experimental procedure done to estimate the porosity of a core sample using the
porosimeter equipment. This equipment operates under the principle of Boyle’s
law. Contained in this report is the procedures taken, the result analysis,
observations made.

One
of the most important factor that considers an hydrocarbon reserve technically
and economically viable is porosity. Its therefore important to estimate the
porosity of the reservoir rock. In doing this, experimental analysis is done on
core samples or logging operations, for better results, direct measurement
using cores is performed.

 

ABSTRACT