The responsible for filtering and regulation temperature of

The
human respiratory tract is a series of organs responsible for taking in
oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The main organs of the respiratory tract
are lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe, also
respiratory system containing airways that responsible for filtering and
regulation temperature of air.1 In
addition, an inhalation of harmful particles, mists, vapors, or gases can
lead to lung diseases.2
First discovery of benzene was by Michael Faraday in 1852 So he done many
experiments and discovered this fascinating compound and name it
“Carbureted hydrogen”, then Mitscherlich by heating a chemical that
was isolated from the benzene gum and called it Benzene.3 Benzene
facilitated life for us and allowed for many automobiles inventions but
nowadays researchers that this chemical compound is harmful when we are
exposed to it for long time it can affect bone marrow and reduce RBC and can
cause anemia.4 Also, benzene is familiar to cause cancer.5
Many
studies indicate the lung parameters is affected from fuel fumes. For
example, a study done by Sushil Dube, Mungal S. U., Mukund Kulkarni
to assess the extent of derangement in pulmonary functions of petrol-pump
workers in India they found out the pulmonary functions (FVC, FEV1, MVV and
PEFR) were decreased in petrol pump workers as compared to controls.1Also,
there is another study done by Mayank Singhal, Farah. Khaliq, S. Singhal
and O. P. Tandon, the pulmonary functions were assessed using
computerized spirometer and they found the FVC and FEV1 were decreased in the
study group while their ratio did not differ much. Both the inspiratory and
expiratory flow rates were also decreased in the study group.2 In
addition, a study done by Neena Sharma, N. Gupta, R. Gupta to to
assess the dynamic ventilatory lung function in petrol pump workers so as to
comment on the long-term effects of work environment on lung function. The
results show that ventilatory efficiency of lung is decreased in petrol pump
workers.3 In study done by Sadiqua Begum, MB Rathna to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) in petrol filling
workers in Mysore city and they found out There was statistically
significant decrease in FVC, and FEV1 in the study group when compared to
the control group. In addition, there was a decrease in PEFR, MVV, and FEV1%, but it
was not statistically significant.4 In a study done by Jacob
Vella, Manwel Borg to
assume whether fuel station employees manifest a further decrease in lung
function when compared to other full-time workers working outdoors and
whether fuel station employees who smoke tobacco manifest a further decrease
in lung function when compared to those who do not. A statistically
significant decrease in FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio in the exposed group
when compared to the control.5 Sandip M Hulke,
conducted a study to examine the lung function in petrol pump workers exposed
to a petrol fumes, he took 119 petrol pump workers who were involved in
filling the petrol or diesel then he tested them on pulmonary function test
and was compared with 33 healthy nonsmokers, he find out a Significant
decrease was seen in the FEV1 in petrol pump workers who were exposed to more
than 5 years. Flow rates i.e. FEF 25-75%, PEFR and PIFR also reduced
significantly in the workers exposed more than 10 years, then she concludes
that Petrol pump workers are more likely to develop restrictive lung disease
especially who are exposed to the petrol fumes (more than 5 years).6
 Arpana Bhide
, conducted a study to evaluate the PFT on petrol-pump workers who were
exposed to petrol fumes taking in account the duration of exposure , he took
a sample of 60 petrol-pump workers divided into two groped depending on the
duration of working and he took a 30 controlled group nonsmoker , he find out
that there is a reduce in TV, FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75% and MVV in study group
unlike the controlled group who had a normal values , he concluded that the
longer the duration of exposure the higher the percentage of affecting the
body organs.7 A V Anuja, conducted a study to evaluate the
effect of petrol fumes on the petrol-pump workers, he took a sample of 50
study sample (exposed to petrol fumes) and 51 controlled group (not exposed
to petrol fumes), he finds out a decrease in (FEV1 – PEFR) in the study group
unlike the controlled group, he concluded that the PFT should be tested on
all petrol-pump workers to study the environmental effect on them.8
PatilSmita V. conducted a study to evaluate the lung function test
performance on the petrol-pump workers who exposed to the petrol fumes. he
took a sample of 70 study group (petrol-pump workers) and 70 controlled
group. He finds out that FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEFR, FEF 25%, FEF 50 %,
FEF 75 % FEF 25-75, MVV are reduced in the study group unlike the controlled
group. he concluded that the petrol fumes are the reason of reduction in the
PFT parameters.9 Another study was conducted by Aprajeta,
among petrol pump workers to examine their pulmonary function compared to
controls group. they found out a statistically significant decrease in the
parameters of FVC, FEV0.5, FEV1, FEV3, FEF 50%, FEF 25-75% and PEFR in the
petrol-pump workers. However, a reduction in the mean values of MVV, FEF 25%,
FEF 75%, FEV 0.5 / FVC, FEV1/ FVC and FEV3 / FVC was statistically
insignificant. A further investigation revealed that the longer duration of
exposure to petrol fumes results in higher reduction in some of lung
parameters.10 Balamurgan Santhalingam, and Mehandi.V. Mahajan
they used Spirometry to measure pulmonary function for petrol pump workers in
comparison with controls group. they found a significant reduction among the
petrol pumps workers as compared to the controls. In addition, the reduction
was increasing with increasing in duration of exposure.11. In
addition, Rutaba Alam, Amsa Zafar, and Asmara Ghafoor in their study
among fuel filling workers found that the pulmonary functions are changed in
petrol pump workers as compared to the control group, because of petrol
fumes. Also, the duty hours are indirectly related to VC of individuals.12
In a study was conducted by Ravi B. Solanki, Anjali R. Bhise, Bharat M.
Dangi, to evaluate the pulmonary function of petrol pump workers by using
of spirometry. A significant decrease was found in the spirometry values
including (FVC), (FEV1), (FEF25?75), and (PEFR) parameters in petrol pump
workers, as compared to the controls group. In addition, the mean values of
FEV1/FVC (%) were significantly increased. However, a reduction in FVC was not
significantly changed among the workers according to the duration of
exposure. It was observed that the longer duration of exposure was related
with a progressive decline in FEV1/FVC (%) and FEF25?75.
This is particularly because the pattern of respiratory impairment changed to
a mixed type as the duration of exposure increases. They concluded that toxic
effects of air pollution and petrol/diesel vapor inhalation on the lung
function of petrol pump workers results in a restrictive type of lung
function abnormality.13Meenal Batta, Shashi Kant
Dhir, conduct an observational case control study containing of 200
subjects (100 adult gasoline pump as a case group and another 100 healthy
subjects as control group) to assess the influence of vehicle exhaust and fuel
fumes on the pulmonary functions of gasoline pump workers in a city of
Punjab, India. They found that the lung parameters (The FVC, FEV1, FEV3,
PEFR, FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%, FEF25-75% and MVV) were to be dramatically
reduced in cases as compared to controls, also, there was statistically
insignificant difference in the FEV1/FVC% and FEV3/FVC% between the two
groups. They conclude that the experience to vehicle exhaust in gasoline pump
workers will result in retro gradation of the pulmonary functions.14 A
cross sectional study in Coimbatore from January 2007 to June 2008 was done
by Sumathi P, N. Neelambikai to assess the pulmonary functions in
fifty non-smoker fuel-pump workers in the age of 18-40 years as study group
and to compare their Pulmonary function tests with that of age and sex
equivalent healthy non-smoker. They found that the PFTs of fuel pump workers
were drastically decreased as compared to controls. The female workers and
controls had significantly lesser PFT than the male. The male fuel pump
workers with greater than 5 years of exposure had significantly reduced PFT.15