What harms theenvironment and the second principle is

What happens to the world in the next 20-30 years? Observing the ongoing pollution andserious effects of global warming, will Humans still be on this Earth in 2040? This can beprevented by a relatively new concept which is called Green chemistry. In the last 50 years,humans have harmed the planet byspreading greenhouse gases in theenvironment and pollute thesurroundings. At first, this did not feellike a concerning problem, althoughduring the end of the 20 th century, thisproblem could not be ignored and action had to be taken. Different water bodies were chokedbecause of the pollution and the planet became comparably hotter than usual. Therefore, Greenchemistry was introduced to eliminate toxics and wastes from chemicals to ensure a brighterfuture for mankind.Green chemistry has 12 main principles. These 12 principles, when followed properlywill allow for a healthy and sustainable future. However, this essay will focus on 2 principleslinking it to the current pharmaceutical industry. The two principles are about waste preventionand about the analysis of Pollution Prevention. These two principles are very important intoday’s pharmaceutical industry as there is a lot of wastage of chemicals which harms theenvironment and the second principle is that chemicals should break down and degrade after theyhave been used to avoid harmful toxins spreading into the atmosphere Over the last few years, there has been a major spike in the wastage of medicines madeby certain pharmaceutical companies. This wastage has been considered in the last couple ofyears and it has forced the National Health Service (NHS) to reduce this waste. This will savetons of resources andimprove quality of healthcare. The NHS is expectedto make a profit of £20billion in the next fouryears. Currently, around £8billion is spent by the NHS on medicines of which £100 million go on as waste. This waste canbe reduced by not using unnecessary supply of medicines. Different hospitals need to use moreof patient’s own drugs (POD) during visits to bring their medicine and ensuring they are usedcorrectly. The advantages to PODs are less missed doses of the medicines and a quickerrecovery. This can result in financial benefits to the economy. Waste needs to be prevented from being created in medicines to allow a better future forthe Earth and Humans. Researchers are currently making a drug to battle malaria calledartemisinin. This drug is made using yeast. The current/old main medicine used to cure malariais called Aralen. Researchers have stopped using these old ways to make malaria curing drugs asit increases chemical extractions into the atmosphere and it costs more to make. Instead,researchers use yeast as yeast change their sugar into an advanced chemical substance that can beconverted into artemisinin. However, this yeast is very hard to find. It is usually located in someplants and must be extracted carefully so that the yeast does not die. If this is done properly, theyeast can be brought into the lab and it is made into artemisinin. This provides an alternative toextractive procedures used currently and increases the use of biotechnology for greener drugmanufacturing.However, this way of manufacturing the drug cannot last long. Extracting yeast out ofplants is achievable for few times but not for the millions of people who suffer malaria everyyear. Therefore, a consortium ofresearchers in California havedeveloped a new strain of yeastwhich can convert glucose intoartemisinin precursor. Instead ofusing the yeast found in the plants,and instead of changing one gene ata time, the researchers have found out a way to make big changes to the yeast’s metabolicpatterns to produce artemisinic acid which can be converted into the drug artemisinin. However,this whole procedure is not considered to be done in the lab as this process is called “semi-synthetic” as it is considered a natural process. This is an easy step and standard procedures areused for the remaining part of the manufacturing of the drug. These procedures are the same aswhen the yeast is extracted from the wormwood plant to make artemisinin. As talked prior in this essay, the pharmaceutical industry is looking for a way to preventwaste being produced through different medical drugs. One example would be Merck andCodexis have made a second-generation green synthesis of sitagliptin, the ingredient used inJanuvia, which is a medicine for Type 2 diabetes. This lead to an enzymatic process that preventswaste from being created, improves safety and eliminates chances of a metal catalyst. Thismedicine has cured Type 2 diabetes faster and with more safety to the patients. This method canbe used in creating other drugs as well.The second principle being talked about is the degrading of chemicals as soon as it isdone with its job. As in the human body, when a person gets stitches, the stitch becomes a part ofthe body and slowly disappears. This is because of an acid called the Polyglycolic acid which isbroken down by the different enzymes in the body. This is then excreted from the urine to allowthe stitch to disappear. In the same way, in the environment, there is a new class of plasticscalled Bioplastics. This is made from natural monomers like lactic acid and this allows chemicalsto be broken down in the environment. Using these bioplastics, toxins can be broken down usingmicrobes in the environment and this reduces the amount of waste that accumulates in our world.